Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Sex With Animals In Jewish Talmud

The Talmud is very complicated, not every statement is a law, sometimes it is commentary or the opinion of a certain Rabbi, sometimes a stipulation or refutation, however the quotes below should give you a good idea about Talmudic reasoning on certain issues.

According to the Talmud, Adam had sex with every animal in Eden before he could be satiated by eve.  It is interesting that according to Talmud Rabbis that while it is illegal to have sex with a prostitute OR a dog there is no prohibition against having sex with a prostitute AND a dog at the same time. 


R. Eleazar further stated: What is meant by the Scriptural text, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh? This teaches that Adam had intercourse with every beast and animal but found no satisfaction until he cohabited with Eve. (Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 63a)


Raba of Parazika asked R. Ashi, Whence is the statement which the Rabbis made that there is no adultery in connection with an animal? — Because it is written: Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot or the wages of a dog etc.; [16] and it has been taught: The hire of a dog [17]and the wages of a harlot [18] are permissible, as it is said: Even both

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Do not marry non-Jews, converts become "different people"

The Talmud is very complicated, not every statement is a law, sometimes it is commentary or the opinion of a certain Rabbi, sometimes a stipulation or refutation, however the quotes below should give you a good idea about Talmudic reasoning on certain issues.

According to the Talmud Jews are not to marry non-Jews unless they convert, at which time they are considered a "different person".


Will you suggest [that what is meant is]: Whether your father is told, ‘You may keep her’ or whether your father is told, ‘Let her go’. the All Merciful said, ‘She is thy sister’, to include his sister from a slave and a heathen! — Scripture stated, The father’s wife’s daughter, only she with whom your father can enter into marital relationship, but a sister from a slave or a heathen is excluded. And what ground is there for this? — It is logical to include those subject to kareth since generally their betrothal is valid. On the contrary! A slave and a heathen should have been included since on embracing the Jewish faith, betrothal with himself is also valid! — When any of these adopts the Jewish faith she becomes a different person. (Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth 23a)

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Support for Noahide Law comes from across the Jewish spectrum

Public Law 102-14 enshrined the Jewish Noahide Laws as the foundation of American civilization and states that it is our responsibility to educate the nation and world to return them to these Jewish laws (here). But the Rabbi they chose to commemorate in the Law, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, was the leader of something called the Chabad-Lubavitch movement who are perhaps the most vocal proponents of Jewish Noahide Law. This Chabad-Lubavitch Movement has even been reported to be antagonistic towards Zionism at times, but not always. Isn’t it possible that Noahide Law is only supported by this one sect of rather wayward Jews? Does Noahide Law have support from across many denominations of Judeo-Zionism? The answer is 100% yes.  Jews of all sects and denominations, both inside and outside of Israel, have shown support for Jewish Noahide Law.  Here we will discuss some organizations which are not under the umbrella of the Chabad-Lubavitch Movement, but still, support Jewish Noahide Law: The Noahide World Center, The Chief Rabbinate of Israel, The unofficial Sanhedrin in Israel, and the organization United With Israel.


Noahide World Center

The Noahide World Center is a Noahide Organization located in Jerusalem.  The center does not have any official connection to the Chabad-Lubavitch Movement alone.  Some of their goals according to their website are to establish Noahide communities worldwide and to have these communities recognized by the national institutes of the Jewish people, meaning the national institutes of Israel:
To help establish Noahide communities around the world and to provide them with support.” and “To establish a link between the Non-Jewish world and Jewish tradition and rabbis, including formal recognition of the Noahides by religious and national institutions of the Jewish people.” – http://noahideworldcenter.org/wp_en/?p=11

The Chief Rabbinate of Israel

The Noahide World Center with its mission to have Noahides recognized by the national institutes of the Jewish people (a.k.a Israel) has been blessed by the Chief Rabbis of Israel, Rabbi David Lau, and Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef, both of whom are the state-appointed spiritual and in many cases legal heads of the Jewish state.  Both Rabbis commended the Noahide World Center for working to bring forth the Torah from Jerusalem to the world. Neither Rabbi David Lau nor Rabbi Yitchak Yosef seems to be members of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement:

Letter by Chief Rabbi David Lau
9 Adar I 5774
February 9, 2014
To: Rabbi Oury Cherki
“Brit Olam”
Hearty wishes of Shalom,
A Letter of Blessing

I am happy to hear about the important activities of your organization, which tries to reach out to the peoples of the world who have complete faith in the word of G-d and who accept for themselves to observe the Seven Mitzvot which the Bnei Noah were commanded to perform.
Our sages noted the high status of those who observe the Seven Mitzvot of Bnei Noah, as
the Rambam wrote in his book, Mishna Torah: “Anyone who accepts the Seven Mitzvot and is careful to perform them – is considered a righteous person among the nations of the world and he has a portion in the World to Come. And this is true as long as he accepts them and performs them because the Holy One, Blessed be He, commanded them in the Torah, and He told us about them through our Teacher Moses.” (Hilchot Melachim 8).

These Seven Mitzvot serve as a framework for mending human society. Whoever follows the events throughout the world can clearly see how much the world is in need of fixing.
Let us hope and pray that we will soon have the privilege of seeing the words of Isaiah come true: “And many nations will go and say, let us rise up to the Mountain of G-d, to the House of the G-d of Jacob, and He will teach us His ways and we will go along His pathways. For the Torah will emanate from Zion and the Word of G-d from Jerusalem.” (Chapter 2).
Happy you are indeed to have the privilege of being involved in the important labor of disseminating the values of truth throughout the world.

With all manner of blessings,David Lau, Chief Rabbi of Israel

Letter by Rishon Lezion Chief Rabbi Yitzchak Yosefhttp://noahideworldcenter.org/wp_en/?p=1647

13 Sivan 5774 
June 11, 2014

To: The Righteous People of the Nations, Bnei Noach Throughout the world
Shalom and Blessings, and hearty wishes for success:

In this brief note I want to express my recognition and my appreciation for your important decision to become closer to the Creator of the world, to accept the Word of G-d, and to observe the seven mitzvot of Bnei Noach. These commandments are the practical way to improve the world, and in this way the blessing of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to our Patriarch Abraham will come true: “And all the families of the world will be blessed through you.” We are witness to the fulfillment of the words of the prophets, “And many nations will go and say, let us rise up to the Mountain of G-d, to the House of the G-d of Jacob, and He will teach us His ways and we will go along His pathways. For the Torah will emanate from Zion and the Word of G-d from Jerusalem.”

I want to bless you that your important decision will spread throughout the entire world, and we will thus be involved in the fulfillment of the prophecy, as is written, “All the nations of the world will know that G-d is Elo-him,” and the entire world will be filled with the glory of G-d.

I also want to extend my blessings to Brit Olam – the Noahide World Center – which is active in these matters. I wish you wisdom and success in enhancing the Torah and exalting it. Let us hope and pray that we will have the merit to see His name spread throughout the entire world and that the final redemption will come soon, Amen.

With blessings of Torah,
Yitzchak Yosef, Rishon Lezion, Chief Rabbi of Israel 
President of the Great Rabbinical Court


In January of 2005, an unofficial ceremony took place in Tiberias Israel to reinstate the Great Sanhedrin, the highest legal authority of the Jewish religion. While the Sanhedrin is not yet legally recognized by the state of Israel, it is the goal of the body to become a legitimate institution. This endeavor seems to be supported by some of the Chief Rabbinate and Rabbinical Judges of Israel, evident from their attendance at later launching events. The Sanhedrin is said to have members from every sect of Judaism: Hareidi, religious-Zionist, Sephardi, Ashkenazi, Hassidic, and many others… it is obvious this is not a Chabad-Lubavitch endeavor. Later in 2005 and in 2006, this very same unofficial Sanhedrin made up of many different sects of Judaism sent emissaries to the United States to help build Noahide Communities there and declared they wanted to see the fall of all other religions on earth. They also hosted a ceremony where many Noahide converts came to Israel to pledge their allegiance to the Sanhedrin and to learn to proselytize the new faith.  Again, the point here is that the Sanhedrin which supports the Noahide Law Movement is not the product of one group or sect, it has support from across the ideological board in the Jewish world and is located inside the Zionist state of Israel.

The Rabbis Of The Sanhedrin Come From Across The Spectrum
A unique ceremony – probably only the second of its kind in the past 1,600 years – is taking place in Tiberias todayThe launching of a Sanhedrin, the highest Jewish-legal tribunal in the Land of Israel…. One of the leaders of today’s attempt to revive the Sanhedrin is Rabbi Yeshai Ba’avad of Beit El… But the goal is to have one rabbinic body in Jerusalem that will convene monthly and issue rulings on central issues. This is the need of the generation and of the hour.”… Rabbi Yisrael Ariel, who heads the Temple institute in Jerusalem, is one of the participating rabbis. He told Arutz-7 today, “Whether this will be the actual Sanhedrin that we await, is a question of time – just like the establishment of the State; we rejoiced in it, butwe are still awaiting something much more ideal. It’s a process. Today’s ceremony is really the continuation of the renewal of the Ordination process in Israel… Rabbi Ariel said that the rabbis there included many from the entire spectrum: Hareidi, religious-Zionist, Sephardi, Ashkenazi, hassidi, and many others – such as Rabbi Yoel Schwartz, Rabbi Adin Shteinzaltz, and many others… We can’t expect a great consensus; that’s not how things work here. But sometimes that’s how the process goes, from the bottom up.” 

Members Of The Chief Rabbinate Of Israel Seems To Approve Of The Sanhedrin
In November of 2005 a state appointed and state paid Chief Rabbi attended a meeting of the nascent Sanhedrin to show his support for the body; Chief Rabbi Arussi of Kiryat Ono.
Since it was launched in Tiberias last year, the Court of 71 rabbis has strived to fulfill the halakhic (Jewish legal) requirements for renewing authenticsemicha (rabbinic ordination passed down from Moses) and for reestablishing the Great Court, which was disbanded 1,600 years ago. At Sunday’sconference, distinguished members of the Court, led by Rabbi Adin Even-Israel (Steinsaltz), presented a humble, yet exhilarating plan to widen the scope and acceptance of the Court to truly move toward becoming the restored Sanhedrin of old… Also participating in the conference were Rabbi Yisrael Rozen, who heads the Tzomet Institute, and Rabbi Ratzon Arussi, Chief Rabbi of Kiryat Ono and a member of the Chief RabbinateBoth spoke about the relationship of Torah Law with the law of the State of Israel, with Rozen focusing on the grassroots desire for honest and sincere leadership in Israeli society following the crisis of the Disengagement, and Arussi outlining the critical importance of the formation of a unified court of Torah monetary law. Rabbi Ratzon Arussi addresses those attending the conference…  The prevailing opinion of most of the senior members of the Sanhedrin is that the Sanhedrin has not yet achieved full halakhic (Jewish legal) status on par with its status before it was disbanded 1,600 years ago, but that its restoration is truly underway… 

The Sanhedrin Sends Emissaries To The USA To Help Build Noahide Communities And Wishes To See The Fall Of All Other Religions On Earth
The court of 71 rabbis, known as the Sanhedrin, which was reestablishedlast October in Tiberius following the reinstitution of rabbinic semikha, decided, after numerous requests from the Noahide community, to assist the movement in forming a leadership council… Rabbi Michael Bar-Ron, with the Sanhedrin’s blessing, travelled to the United States to meet with representatives of the Noahide movement and select members for the High Council. Bar-Ron, an ordained student, talmid samukh, who currently sits on the Sanhedrin, is also one of the Sanhedrin’s spokesmen… Bar-Ron organized a small conference in California where six of the council’s future members were selected and also addressed the annual convention of the Vendyl Jones Research Institute – one of the Noahide organizations represented on the council. At the VJRI convention, Bar-Ron met five more of the Noahide leaders who will be joining the council… A third goal of the creation of the High Council and the Sanhedrin’s efforts in regard to the Noahide community, is to “transform the Noahide movement from a religious phenomenon – a curiosity many have not heard of – into a powerful international movement that can successfully compete with, and with G-d’s help bring about the fall of, any religious movement but the pure authentic faith that was given to humanity through Noach, the father of us all,” said emissary Bar-Ron… Although Judaism does not require or encourage non-Jews to become Jewish, the observance of the Seven Laws of Noah is incumbent upon humanity and widespread observance is to be worked toward, even through active proselytization, something that is anathema to Judaism… 

Noahide Converts From Around The World Pledge Allegiance To The Sanhedrin And Noahide Law
A group of non-Jewish delegates have come to Jerusalem to pledge their loyalty to the Laws of Noah. They appeared before the nascent Sanhedrin, which established a High Council for B’nai Noach. The ten delegates appeared before a special session of the Jewish High Court of 71 Rabbis led by its Nassi (President) Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz… “Each one [of the B’nai Noach] comes with a name he has made in the world, as a teacher and example in his community of observance of the seven laws of Noah,” said Rabbi Michael Bar-Ron, the Sanhedrin’s emissary who facilitated the council’s organization, introducing the delegates. “At great physical and financial expense, they have flown across the world to Jerusalem, the holy city, to pledge before the court and all mankind, their allegiance to the Seven Laws of Noah, the laws of the Creator.” Each of the Noahide representatives stood before the Sanhedrin and pledged: ” I pledge my allegiance to HaShem, G-d of Israel, Creator and King of the Universe, to His Torah and its representatives, the developing Sanhedrin. I hereby pledge to uphold the Seven Laws of Noah in all their details, according to Oral Law of Moses under the guidance of the developing SanhedrinWe are setting up a global mission here – not to recruit people, but to bring them to the realization that there is one G-d.”…Within the nation of Israel there is one tribe that deals with the Temple – the priests. We Jews are a specific tribe in the world that was chosen to be a tribe of priests – hereditary priests. Because of this we have special duties. Being a priest does not mean we are cut off from the other people. While the people of the world are all different units in the armies of the Lord, we are a special commando unit that maybe doesn’t get paid more, but has special assignments that may be more dangerous.” Rabbi Even-Israel spoke about the difficulties that would confront the B’nai Noah movement as it grows: “When we are speaking in general, almost every human being can more or less accept the laws of Noah, but when we get to particulars we will come toserious points, at which we disagree with Christianity and Islam…”The Nassi added that while there are those who doubt the ability of the Sanhedrin to be more than an idea leading up to the true reestablished court, the Noahide Council cannot be doubted or criticized due to its pure motives and unprecedented mission…“Anyone who reads the Bible can see that your Torah is your constitution, your Bill of Rights and your deed to the Land of Israel. We have plans to publish Noahide prayer books, children’s books and documentaries on science and the world through the lens of the Torah.” “We have heard that G-d is with you,” Long concluded. 


“United with Israel” is an organization that connects pro-Israel activists globally.  They feature information about the Noahide Laws and Public Law 102-14 prominently on their website, advertising their recognition in the United States with what would seem like a sense of approval and pride. “United with Israel” has shown no indication of being a Chabad-Lubavitch only affiliated organization.

About United With Israel
“United with Israel is a global, grassroots movement comprised of individuals who are deeply committed to the success and prosperity of Israel. Our primary mission is to build a massive network of pro-Israel activists and foster global unity with the People, Country and Land of Israel. In short, we seek to fight and win the battle of public opinion for Israel. We maximize the incredible power of social media to spread the truth about Israel to the entire world.” 

United With Israel Supports Noahide Law and Public Law 102-14
The “Seven Laws of Noah” or the “Noahide Laws,” are a set of moral laws commanded by God and binding on all “children of Noah,” namely, all of humanity. According to Judaism, any gentile who adheres to the Noahide laws is regarded as a Righteous Gentile and is assured of a place in the World to Come.

Jews don’t believe in proselytization or seeking converts. We don’t believe there is any reason for non-Jews to convert and become Jewish. The Noahide Laws are regarded as the way through which non-Jews can have a direct and meaningful relationship with God. As the saying goes, “Any non-Jew who keeps these seven goes to Heaven!” It is interesting to note that according to most rabbis and decisors of Jewish law, non-Jews are not only not obliged to observe the other mitzvot of the Torah, but they are actually forbidden to do so.

In recent years, the term “Noahide” has come to refer to non-Jews who strive to live in accordance with the seven Noahide Laws. The rainbow is the symbol of the Noahide movement
U.S. Recognition of Noahide Laws

In 1983, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, better known as the Lubavitcher Rebbe, said that it was time to revitalize this long-dormant role of the Jewish people. In 1987, then-U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed a proclamation speaking of “the historical tradition of ethical values and principles, which have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization when they were known as the Seven Noahide Laws, transmitted through God to Moses on Mount Sinai.” In 1991, the United States Congress declared and established “Education Day” in honor of the birthday of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the leader of the Chabad movement. In the words of Congress:

“…Whereas Congress recognizes the historical tradition of ethical values and principles which are the basis of civilized society and upon which our great Nation was founded; Whereas these ethical values and principles have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilization, when they were known as the Seven Noahide Laws…”

In January 2004, Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, the spiritual leader of Israeli Druze, signed a declaration calling on non-Jews living in the Land of Israel to observe the Noahide Laws.
In earlier times, a gentile living in the Land of Israel who accepted the Seven Laws in the presence of a rabbinical court was known as a Ger toshav, or “resident stranger.” Jewish law only allows the official acceptance of a Ger Toshav as a resident in the Land of Israel during a time when the Jubilee Year (yovel) is in effect. There is much discussion in the codes as to whether some of the laws that apply to a Ger Toshav may be applied to some modern gentiles. A Ger Toshav should not be confused with a Ger Tzedek, who is a person who ultimately prefers to proceed to total conversion to Judaism, a procedure that is traditionally only allowed to take place after much thought and deliberation and only after the potential convert has been turned away a number of times. 

Myth - "The Sanhedrin never executed anyone"

When speaking to Jews and Noahides about Jewish Noahide Law and the American law which endorses them, Public Law 102-14 (here), you will often find they have a dense maze of arguments and counter-arguments against the very objection to having Jewish supremacist laws in the United States. They use slippery logic and vague “history” to try to dissuade your concerns about Jewish Noahide Law, but the goal is always the same, to prevent criticism of Public Law 102-14.  No topic related to Noahide Law is more of an open target for our opponents than the issue of the Sanhedrin (supreme Jewish court). According to the Babylonian Talmud, it is the Israeli Great Sanhedrin which has jurisdiction over non-Jews and the power to determine where they live or die, though non-Jews are instructed to operate their own Noahide courts to carry out executions themselves, these orders enforced by converted Noahides (here) and  now it would also seem the sword of Islam (here), the wealth of the Vatican (here) and the secrecy of Freemasonry (here).  

The Great Sanhedrin argument is the focus of counter-measures by Noahide apologists because it speaks to our logic that one would need the supreme Jewish court in order to make the Noahide system work, the reality, however, is that this is not the case. We have already discussed how claims that a Sanhedrin is needed to enact Jewish Noahide Law is false and that regardless the Israeli government has made it its prerogative to act as the Sanhedrin when needed (here). Even though no Great Sanhedrin is needed, many Jews and Noahides will argue “the Sanhedrin never killed anyone”. This argument is often followed by learned Jews and Noahides with the following quote from the Babylonian Talmud :
The Sanhedrin that executes one person in seven years is called “murderous.” Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says that this extends to one execution in seventy years. Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva say, “If we had been among the Sanhedrin, no one would ever have been executed.” Rabbi Simon ben Gamliel responds, “Such an attitude would increase bloodshed in Israel.” – Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 7a
The implication here is that the Sanhedrin disapproved of executions, and some persons even go so far as to say that the Sanhedrin never executed anyone.  But this statement is more speculative and less factual; it is really nothing but a ploy to dull the senses of aware non-Jews and chide them into submission, dampening their fervor to repeal Public Law 102-14; and the statement that the Sanhedrin never killed anyone is just plain false, the Sanhedrin did execute people. When analyzed in full the quote above shows the Rabbis were not disapproving of execution in general but only in cases where there could have been the possibility of false memory on the part of old witnesses and judges. Additionally, for the vast majority of its history, the Great Sanhedrin was dominated by foreign rulers and were forbade from practicing independently which would have severely limited the number of executions possible, this is not the case with modern Israel. 


The statement that you will often hear “the Sanhedrin never executed anyone” is a lie.  According to the Jewish Virtual Library, while it is likely that much of the Sanhedrin’s discussion on execution was “theoretical”, there were at least four instances where execution did occur and at least two others where conflicting testimonies about executions were given by the Rabbis.  While it is stated that perhaps two of these verified executions were “extrajudicial”, we are still left with at least 2 verified executions by the Sanhedrin. The Talmud does not state whether or not other executions took place or how often, but just because the Talmud did not record them does not mean they didn't happen; the statement “The Sanhedrin Never Executed Anyone” is not true.
It is of extreme difficulty to determine whether the modes of capital punishment given above, and based on the detailed discussion, mainly in the tractate Sanhedrin, reflect actual practice, or whether they were academic discussions, as, for instance, are the detailed discussions on the sacrifices. Thus the law of the “stubborn and rebellious son” covers five mishnayot (Sanh. 8:1–5) and four folios of the Babylonian Talmud (68b–72a), and it is laid down that he is put to death by stoning and then hanged (ibid., 46a). Yet it is stated that “It never happened and it never will happen” and that the law was given merely “that you may study it and receive reward” (for the pure study; Tosef., Sanh. 11:6; Sanh. 71a), though on the other hand in the talmudic passage R. Jonathan protests “I saw him and sat on his grave.” The same statement is made in the case of the death penalty for communal apostasy (Tosef., Sanh. 14:1) and the same reason given for its study… 
…All that one can do is to assemble the available evidence. That the Sanhedrin had the power of inflicting the death sentence and that they exercised it is historically attested. Herod was arraigned before it on a capital charge, although he was enabled to escape and avoid the penalty (Jos., Ant., 14:168–70). Judah b. Tabbai admitted that he had wrongly sentenced a perjured witness to death (TJ, Sanh. 6:4, 23a–Tosef., Sanh. 6:6). The son of his colleague, Simeon b. Shetaḥ, was also wrongly condemned to death through false witness, and when the witnesses confessed their perjury the condemned man refused to take advantage of it lest his father, the head of the Sanhedrin, be accused of favoritism, and he went to his death, though innocent (TJ, loc. cit.). It is also clear from an incident vividly described by Simeon b. Shetaḥ that the laws of evidence were strictly adhered to (Tosef., Sanh. 8:3). One anonymous case is cited in the same context. “It happened that a man was being led to his execution. They said to him, ‘Say, “May my death be an atonement for all my sins.'” He replied ‘May my death be an atonement for all my sins, except for this one (for which I have been sentenced to death). If I am guilty of it, may my death not be an atonement, and the Bet Din and all Israel shall be guiltless'” (the version in the Babylonian Talmud adds “but may the witnesses never be forgiven””). When the matter was reported to the sages, their eyes filled with tears, but they said, “It is impossible to reverse the decision, since the matter is endless; [he must be executed] but his blood is on the necks of the witnesses” (TJ Sanh. 6:5, 23a). Nevertheless, in none of those cases is the manner of execution given and the remarkable fact emerges that in the two cases cited where the mode of execution is explicitly stated the verdicts were extra-judicial. One was the action of Simeon b. Shetaḥ in sentencing 80 women in Ashkelon to hanging for witchcraft (Sanh. 6:4, cf. Sanh. 46a. Derembourg suggests that Simeon b. Shetaḥ is a mistake for the Hasmonean), while of the other it is stated: “It once happened that during the Greek period a man was sentenced to death by stoning for riding a horse on the Sabbath. Not that he was liable to death, but because the special circumstances of the time demanded it” (Sanh. 46a). 
– Capital Punishment, Jewish Virtual Library, Retrieved From https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/capital-punishment


Another important fact to take into consideration is that if the Great Sanhedrin did only speak about executions in a “theoretical” manner and only a few were carried out, this could have been because for most of the Sanhedrin’s history it was under foreign rule (Greece and Rome) and even had its power to inflict capital punishment removed by the Romans, the only reason to remove the Sanhedrin's power to inflict capital punishment would be because the Great Sanhedrin was executing people.  The reviving Sanhedrin in Israel today and the Israeli Chief Rabbinate are not under foreign rule as it was in ancient days.
The earliest record of a Sanhedrin is by Josephus who wrote of a political Sanhedrin convened by the Romans in 57 B.C.E. Hellenistic sources generally depict the Sanhedrin as a political and judicial council headed by the country’s ruler….In about 30 C.E., the Great Sanhedrin lost its authority to inflict capital punishment. 
– Sanhedrin, Jewish Virtual Library, Retrieved From https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-sanhedrin
the right of imposing capital punishment having been taken from the Sanhedrin by the Romans a century before, “40 years before the Destruction of the Temple” (Sanh. 41a; TJ, Sanh. 1:18a).  
– Capital Punishment, Jewish Virtual Library, Retrieved From https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/capital-punishment


“The Sanhedrin that executes one person in seven years is called “murderous.” Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says that this extends to one execution in seventy years. Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva say, “If we had been among the Sanhedrin, no one would ever have been executed.” Rabbi Simon ben Gamliel responds, “Such an attitude would increase bloodshed in Israel.” – Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 7a
The above Talmudic quote is often thrown at those who oppose Public Law 102-14 to silence them, as if the above mentioned is a good reason to leave a law that commands the death of non-Jews in the American legal system in the first place.  However, the logic used by Jewish Noahide Law supporters here is deceptive.  It was actually used upon our own Supreme Court by the Jewish Legal organizations IAJLJ and COPLA to have them consider the Talmudic form of execution required under Noahide Law, decapitation (here). 

The Mishna2 in the tractate Makkoth (7a) declared:

The Sanhedrin that executes one person in seven years is called “murderous.” Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says that this extends to one execution in seventy years. Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva say, “If we had been among the Sanhedrin, no one would ever have been executed.” Rabbi Simon ben Gamliel responds, “Such an attitude would increase bloodshed in Israel.”

This exchange among rabbis living in the first and second centuries reflects differences over the deterrent value of capital punishment that continue among legal scholars to this day. Some rabbis of the Mishnaic period (such as Rabbis Tarfon and Akiva) were unwilling to participate in a process that would take human life, while other rabbis (like Rabbi Simon ben Gamliel) believed that capital punishment had a deterrent effect that permitted it to be employed.  


However, when read in full, the Talmudic text shows that the Rabbis are not condemning the death penalty but are debating on whether or not slack execution laws in terms of witnesses would increase bloodshed in Israel by increasing the number of murderers.  The statement is not a statement against the death penalty but a question as to where the death penalty would increase or decrease murders in Israeli society. When the text is put in context, we see that in this instance the Rabbis are speaking about a very special case whereby a criminal has been convicted, flees the land, and is then returned to the Sanhedrin (Jewish Court) for trial once again, but this time the original witnesses to the crime are no longer available.  In this case, two witnesses to the trial must state that the criminal was tried and they must say who the original witnesses were.  One Rabbi states that such a judicial procedure done every seven or even every seventy years would make the Sanhedrin “murderous”… yet the text shows the Rabbis are confused by this statement and don’t know whether or not this is meant to be a condemnation or a simple statement of fact.  The Rabbis then discuss a way to test whether the two witnesses to the trial (not the original witnesses to the crime) are sound; they simply pose questions about the trial to the two witnesses, if they are unable to answer simple questions to prove they witnessed the trial it is recommended the person is not put to death. This is a very special case being discussed here, it is not a general rule or morality which the Sanhedrin is applying'

Read Entire Mishnah & Gamera With Footnotes

Babylonian Talmud, Makkoth 7a)


GEMARA. … A SANHEDRIN THAT EFFECTS AN EXECUTION ONCE IN SEVEN YEARS IS BRANDED A DESTRUCTIVE TRIBUNAL; R. ELIEZER B. AZARIAH SAYS, ONCE IN SEVENTY YEARS. The question was raised whether the comment [of R. Eleizer b. Azariah was a censure, namely] that even one death-sentence in seventy years branded the Sanhedrin as a destructive tribunal, or [a mere observation] that it ordinarily happened but once in seventy years? — it stands [undecided]. 

GEMARA. [IF ONE FLED . . . AND AGAIN COMES UP BEFORE THE SAME COURT . . .] This wording implies [that the first judgment] is not to be set aside in the same Court, but may be setaside In another Court, whereas in the next clause we read: WHEREVER TWO WITNESSES STAND UP AND DECLARE, ‘WE TESTIFY THAT THIS MAN WAS TRIED ANDCONVICTED AT THE COURT OF X AND THAT Y AND Z WERE THE WITNESSES IN THECASE’ THE ACCUSED IS EXECUTED [which conveys a contrary impression]! — Said Abaye:That presents no difficulty; [there are two domains in regard to Court decisions], one has reference to a Palestinian Court, the other to an extra-Palestinian Court, as it is taught: R. Judah b. Dosithai says [in the name of R. Simeon b. Shetah] that if a fugitive from Palestine went abroad, his sentence is not set aside; from abroad to Palestine, his sentence is set aside, on account of Palestine’s prerogative.6


What [Scriptural] authority is there for this? — Our Rabbis taught: [From the text,] And these things shall be for a statute of judgment unto you throughout your generations in all your dwellings,7 we learn that a Sanhedrin has jurisdiction both in and outside Palestine. If that be so, what is the import of [the limitation in] the text, Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee tribe by tribe?8 — [It means that] in your [own] gates you set up tribunals in every district as well as in every city, whereas outside the Land [of Palestine], you set up tribunals only in every district but not in every city.9


The question was raised whether the comment [of R. Eliezer b. Azariah was a censure, namely] that even one death-sentence in seventy years branded the Sanhedrin as a destructive tribunal, or [a mere observation] that it ordinarily happened but once in seventy years? — It stands [undecided].


How could they [being judges] give effect to that [policy]? Both R. Johanan and R. Eleazar suggested that the witnesses might be plied with [intimate] questions such as, ‘Did you take note whether the victim was [perchance] suffering from some fatal affection or was he perfectly healthy?’ R. Ashi [enlarging on this] said: And should the reply be, ‘Perfectly healthy’, they might further be embarrassed by asking, ‘Maybe the sword only severed an internal lesion?’10
And what would be asked, say, in a charge of incest? — Both Abaye and Raba suggested asking the witnesses whether they had seen the offenders as intimate as ‘kohl-flask and probe’?11

Now [with regard to] the Rabbis,12 what kind of evidence [in such a charge] would they deem sufficient to convict? — According to Samuel’s maxim; for Samuel said that being caught in the attitude of the unchaste is sufficient evidence.

(6) Cf. Tosef. Sanh III, 11, ‘R. Dosithai b. Judah (J. Mak. I has ‘R.D.b. Jannai) says that fugitives who had been convicted to death, having fled from Palestine abroad, are put to death forthwith; and those who fled to Palestine from abroad are not put to death (forthwith), but are sent to trial as in the first instance.’ ‘Dos, b. Judah’ seems the better reading; also the bracketed part is missing in many good MSS.
(7) Num. XXXV, 29 (in reference to manslaying). The wording makes the provision operative everywhere and always.
(8) Deut. XVI, 18, i.e. in Palestine only, after the distribution and occupation of the land by all the tribes.
(9) No city was entitled to a Sanhedrin of twenty-three judges unless it had at least 120 residents (another view 230), cf. Sanh. 17b.
(10) The juridical point involved in asking such intimate questions is this: that if the witnesses could not be absolutely certain on any material point in the evidence, they could not be expected to take a lead in the actual execution of the offender, as required by law. (Deut. XVII, 6-7.) Thus capital punishment fails.
(11) A euphemism for carnal intimacy.
(12) I.e., those others who do not share the views of R. Tarfon and R. Akiba in regard to capital punishment.
(13) I.e., accidentally, without premeditation.
(14) Eastern roofs are flat; they are plastered to make them water-tight and give them the necessary slope. The levelling is done by a log (or smooth flat stone) to which a long handle attached, by which it is pushed backwards and forwards. Cf. M. K. 11a and Vergil, Georgics, I, 178, area cum primis ingenti aequanda cylindro.


Whether or not the Sanhedrin ever killed anyone is not the point, the point is that Jewish supremacist laws should not be part of the American federal legal system.  However, the statement that “the Sanhedrin never executed anyone” is blatantly false, and so is the idea that the Sanhedrin was opposed to executions in general. We must also take into account that the old Sanhedrin was often under foreign rule and even had its right to inflict capital punishment removed, this is not the case however with the Sanhedrin revival movement or the Chief Rabbinate in Israel today.  This sort of logic used by Jews, Noahides, and their supporters is disingenuous and really nothing more than a maneuver to distract us away from the bigger question of why Jewish Noahide Law has been endorsed by the  USA in the first place and how to repeal Public Law 102-14.

The Jewish Noahide Law against "idolatry" outlaws much more than statues


The very first of The Seven Jewish Noahide Laws (American Public Law 102-14) is “No Idolatry”. Many people don’t bow before graven images, so should they really fear if such practices are outlawed? “Idolatry” under Jewish Noahide Law encompasses much much more than simply banning people from bowing before statues. According to Jewish legal scholars, to avoid “idolatry”, one must accept Jewish Torah, accept Jewish prophets and teachers, and give obedience to Jewish courts. Also, one must not accept non-Jewish scriptures and not follow non-Jewish prophets or priests. All non-Jewish religious temples and paraphernalia are to be destroyed and any attempts to proselytize a non-Jewish religion will lead to execution. In addition, under the Noahide Law which abolishes “idolatry”, non-Jews can be executed for doing something as simple as consulting astrologers transvestism or getting a tattoo. Finally, non-Jews are commanded to not love those who practice idolatry and to even hate them, going out of one's way to have them prosecuted and killed. Under these strictures, even Christianity is considered idolatry (here). Links to legal references below. 

- Full List Of Commands And Prohibitions


To acknowledge G-d’s existence

To acknowledge G-d’s unity (that He is only One, and Infinite)
To teach and study Torah

To heed and obey every true prophet

To obey the judges of the Sanhedrin

To destroy all idols, their temples, and other idolatrous items

To honor Torah sages

Not to believe in the existence of any gods other than G-d

No having idols made for oneself

No making idols for others

No making human statues or figures

No idol-worship in four standard ways

No idol-worship according to its established rituals

No offering one’s children for Molech-worship rituals

No practicing the cult of Ov

No practicing the cult of Yidoni

No studying idolatrous rituals

No erecting a pillar for worship purposes

No making a stone pavement for bowing

No planting trees as religious decorations

No swearing in the names of false gods

No enticing another person to idolatry

No loving an idolatry-enticer

No minimizing hatred of an idolatry-enticer

No rescuing an idolatry-enticer from danger

No vindicating an idolatry-enticer in his court trial

No withholding evidence on an idolatry-enticer in his court trial

No benefiting from idol adornments 
No owning idolatrous items

No prophesying in the name of a false god

No false prophecy, even in the name of the true G-d

No listening to the prophet of a false god

No being afraid to punish a false prophet

No imitating the customs of idol worshipers

No divination or fortune telling

No astrology or magical illusion

No omen reading
No witchcraft

No charming or bewitching

No inquiring of an Ov

No inquiring of a Yidoni

No necromancy

No women wearing men’s clothes

No men wearing women’s clothes

No tattooing

No shaving off the temples (upper sideburns)

No shaving the beard

No cutting oneself in mourning

No indulging wayward thoughts or sights

No compassion for idol worshipers
Not to test G-d’s promises through His prophets

No Temple service or Torah teaching while drunk

No tearing out one’s hair in mourning

Not to drink idolatrous wine of libation

Not to allow a witch to live

No adding to the written or oral Torah

No subtracting from the written or oral Torah

What is the difference between a Ger Toshav and a Noahide?


Also See: I’m Not A Ger
When speaking about Noahide Law with either Jews or Noahides, sometimes a person who is either misinformed or even willingly trying to deceive you will proclaim that there is no reason to worry about Noahide Law since according to Jewish theology, no “Ger Toshav” can be accepted at this time, and sometimes they will purposely conflate the word "Ger Toshav" with "Noahide" to confuse you; learn about Kol Nidre (here), the Jewish doctrine of deception. According to Jewish Law, a “Ger Toshav” can only be accepted during a time when the nation of Israel has instated a holiday called the Jubilee, and the modern nation of Israel has not done this because in order to do so they need an official court body called the Great Sanhedrin, which they don't; however this does not mean Israel is a secular state (here).  However, this logic is deceptive, since the speaker is either accidentally or intentionally conflating a “Noahide” with a “Ger Toshav”, they are not the same thing! A Ger Toshav is a Noahide who lives within the border of Israel which is a specific legal status, yet Noahides who live outside the land of Israel are always commanded to uphold the Noahide Laws and there is no need for a Great Sanhedrin to direct this; still, the Zionist state of Israel has found it in their interest to subvert their own religious laws and legally declare a Ger Toshav in Israel anyway for religious-legal purposes (here). Don't fall for the Ger Toshav argument, it is not only inaccurate but also deceptively designed to lower the guard of non-Jews by implying Jewish Noahide Law is not yet actionable, it is!

According to Jewish Law, all people of the earth are commanded to follow The Seven Noahide Laws, and anyone who does so is given the title “pious among the nations”, or modernly a “Noahide”. However, there is a special class of Noahides called “Ger Toshav”.  Noahides who live within the borders of Israel are known as “Ger Toshav”, the distinction describes their location. Full converts to Judaism within the land of Palestine/Israel are known as “ger ha-ẓedeḳ”.
The “Ger.”- Term employed generally, though not exclusively, in the Septuagint as a rendering for the Hebrew word “ger,” designating a convert from one religion to another. The original meaning of the Hebrew is involved in some doubt. Modern interpreters hold it to have connoted, at first, a stranger (or a “client,” in the technical sense of the word) residing in Palestine, who had put himself under the protection of the people (or of one of them) among whom he had taken up his abode. In later, post-exilic usage it denotes a convert to the Jewish religion. In the Septuagint and the New Testament the Greek equivalent has almost invariably the latter signification (but see Geiger, “Urschrift,” pp. 353 et seq.), though in the Septuagint the word implies also residence in Palestine on the part of one who had previously resided elsewhere, an implication entirely lost both in the Talmudical “ger” and in the New Testament προσέλύτος… 
In order to find a precedent the Rabbis went so far as to assume that proselytes of this order were recognized in Biblical law, applying to them the term “toshab” (“sojourner,” “aborigine,” referring to the Canaanites; see Maimonides’ explanation in “Yad,” Issure Biah, xiv. 7; see Grätz, l.c. p. 15), in connection with “ger” (see Ex. xxv. 47, where the better reading would be “we-toshab”). Another name for one of this class was “proselyte of the gate” (“ger ha-sha’ar,” that is, one under Jewish civil jurisdiction; comp. Deut. v. 14, xiv. 21, referring to the stranger who had legal claims upon the generosity and protection of his Jewish neighbors). In order to be recognized as one of these the neophyte had publicly to assume, before three “ḥaberim,” or men of authority, the solemn obligation not to worship idols, an obligation which involved the recognition of the seven Noachian injunctions as binding (‘Ab. Zarah 64b; “Yad,” Issure Biah, xiv. 7)…
In contradistinction to the ger toshab, the full proselyte was designated as “ger ha-ẓedeḳ,” “ger ha-berit” (a sincere and righteous proselyte, one who has submitted to circumcision; see Mek., Mishpaṭim, 18; Gerim iii.). 

It is true that according to Jewish Law until the state of Israel institutes the Jubilee holiday, there can be no acceptance of “Ger Toshav” at this time.  But “Ger Toshav” is only a special legal status of Noahide, one who officially lives within Israel.  However, this ruling against accepting “Ger Toshav” does not negate the general command for all non-Jews to follow and enact Noahide Law by setting up Noahide courts.
The recognition of these quasi-proselytes rendered it obligatory upon the Jews to treat them as brothers (see ‘Ab. Zarah 65a; Pes. 21a). But by the third century the steady growth of Christianity had caused these qualified conversions to Judaism to be regarded with increasing disfavor. According to Simeon b. Eleazar, this form of adoption into Judaism was valid only when the institution of the jubilee also was observed, that is, according to the common understanding of his dictum, during the national existence of Israel (‘Ar. 29a)A similar observation of Maimonides (“Yad,” Issure Biah, xiv. 7-8; ib. ‘Akkum, x. 6) is construed in the same sense. It seems more probable that Maimonides and Simeon ben Eleazar wished to convey the idea that, for their day, the institution of the ger toshab was without practical warrant in the Torah. R. Johanan declares that if after a probation of twelve months the ger toshab did not submit to the rite of circumcision, he was to be regarded as a heathen (‘Ab. Zarah 65a; the same period of probation is fixed by Ḥanina bar Ḥama in Yer. Yeb. 8d).  
– Proselyte, 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Retrieved From http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12391-proselyte

While it may not be officially recognized under religious law, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel has initiated a civil recognition of Ger Toshav in the land of modern Israel to facilitate land ownership for Noahide Converts within the nation. Again, while this is not religiously binding, it does carry civil legal authority which still makes the status legally actionable in the modern world. 
Chief Rabbinate Recognizes a Ger Toshav

Posted by: Rabbi Oury Cherki September 23, 2014

Rav Oury Cherki comments on the recognition of a “Ger Toshav” by the Chief Rabbinate: For the very first time in 2,500 years, a man was pronounced a “Ger Toshav” – a resident alien – by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel. A Ger Toshav is a non-Jew who lives among the people of Israel in its Land, accepts the Torah, loves Israel, and observes the seven mitzvot of Bnei Noach. For reasons connected to the Shemitta year, the Chief Rabbinate has taken an innovative step of accepting a Ben Noach who lives in Israel as a Ger ToshavThis can be seen as a symbolic act showing that the nation of Israel has a truly universal mission, to be officially and openly involved with humanity as a whole and not to be restricted to its own narrow interests. 

- Noahide World Center, "Chief Rabbinate Recognizes a Ger Toshav",  Retrieved From http://noahideworldcenter.org/wp_en/?p=1820

According to reports, while this status of “Ger Toshav” carries some legal weight in the land of Israel, allowing the said “Ger Toshav” to purchase lands within the state, it is not religiously binding. Again, however, this does not change the fact that Jewish Noahide Law applies to all peoples at all times outside the land of Israel, there is no restriction on implementing global Jewish Noahide Law in general and the Zionist state of Israel has put its civil legal weight behind the Ger Toshav legality regardless.
There was an article posted recently on the news regarding a non-Jew in Israel being given a status of Ger Toshav by the Chief Rabbi of Israel.
You can see the original article HERE though it is all in Hebrew. Here is a rough translation of the article via google translate:
After 2,500 years: Chief awarded the status of “resident stranger”

The court, headed by Chief Rabbi David Lau gave the class George Streichman, native Ukraine, he sold land in the country in the “allowance”. Streichman gained a special status because he is a foreigner who believes in the God of Israel

Two thousand five hundred years after that law in Israel gave man becoming a resident stranger – a monthly event: The law led by Chief Rabbi David Lau, Rabbi Zion Boaron and multi Algrably score this week granted special status George Streichman, native Ukraine, a grandchild grandparent Jews who immigrated to Israel within the framework of the Law of Return, and lives today in Ramat Gan. Behind the move is the Sabbatical year approaching. 

Unlike the sale of chametz on Pesach, the practice of selling land not yet Sabbatical year prohibition creates a conflict with ‘lo techanem, preventing the sale of land in the Land of Israel to non Jewish peopleAccordingly, over the years made sure the purchaser all the less there will be an idolater, but this year decided rabbinate find Ben Noah ‘foreigner who fulfills the seven commandments and believe in the God of Israel, to give it the status of “resident stranger” and sell to him, the land.rite sale took place on Wednesday of this week at the Jerusalem Rabbinate, and was attended by the Chief Rabbi David Lau, Deputy Minister of Religious Services Eli Ben- Dahan, Rabbi Yaakov Ariel, Rabbi Avraham Yosef and head of the Israel Lands Administration Benzi Lieberman. The sale includes both the fields of farmers who chose B’hitr sale, and the state land. Over the past few weeks have signed Hhlkaim forms under which they transfer their rights chief rabbis, are the part transferred the rights to the Israel Lands Administration, and Lieberman sold them along with the country’s land Streichman. After a tense relationship between the Chief Rabbinate office for religious services, it appears that prior to the Sabbatical efforts were made Shared safely get through the year. Beshmita previous state comptroller criticized the authorities for unnecessary red tape procedures, and consequently became time to contact Deputy Minister Ben Dahan. Chief Rabbi David Lau introduced amendments to the wording of the sale and improved the halachic level. The sale itself took time out of work: Each form was brought to the perusal of the rabbis, and then inspection by Ben Dahan – only after crossed the approval of the Chief Rabbinate and the Ministry of Religious Services was signing event was also attended by Rabbi Uri Sharki, standing at the top of the ‘everlasting covenant’ – the center World to Noah, who served as a spiritual guide Streichman. After years of dealing with the issue of Noah, for him it was the realization of a dream. “What happened in the Court of the week is the start of a change for the better and the handling of humanity by Israel,” he said in a conversation with Makor Rishon, “I seek to enshrine the status of ‘Noah’ law. Currently, a pair that both defined as being comfortable not can not marry in Israel. I work so that they will be recognized by the authorities and by the Chief Rabbinate could marry wedding ceremony tailored to them. ” Sharki Noah sees the issue of Jewish basic point. “This is a basic method which seeks to Judaism, to repair the world Kingdom of the Almighty,” he says. “We did not invent it. While we were in constant battle for survival was difficult for us to take care of others, but we Mssveno political independence play a role in humanity.” In response to the claim that efforts should be concentrated on the Jews and the boys to other nations, saying Sharki “On the contrary, I argue that the Jews’ departure from their tradition also stems from the lack of a universal message of Judaism, in truth there is in it.”

In response to this, Rabbi Bloomestiel of Yeshiva Pirchei Shoshanim wrote the following after contacting the Chief Rabbi’s office in Israel:


September 23, ’14 
To Whom It May Concern:

I have received numerous letters and inquiries in the previous 24 hours from Noahides and others regarding a recent news report. This report states that the Chief Rabbinate recently awarded ger tosav status to a non-Jew in Israel.
Unfortunately, this report is being circulated by dishonest persons as “proof’ that ger toshav status may, and possibly must, be given to Noahides today.
I have spoken with the office of the Chief Rabbi and confirmed that the official position of the Chief Rabbinate is that there is no status of ger toshav in our times.
The article in question must be read carefully and in context to understand the issue at hand. The upcoming Hebrew year of 5775 is a shemittah year. The Torah, at the beginning of Leviticus 25, commands a Shabbat for the land of Israel, stating:
“Six years shall you sow your field, and six years shall you prune your vineyard and gather in their produce. But the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land, a Shabbat to HaShem; you shall neither sow your field nor prune your vineyard. That which grows of itself of your crops you may not reap nor shallyou gather the grapes of your vine; it shall be a year of rest for the land.”
The observance of shemittah presented serious problems to the early pioneers who resettled the land in the 19th century. Many poskim, authorities on Torah law, permitted the sale of farm land to non-Jews during the shemittah year. This sale permitted agriculture to continue and produce food and resources for the settlements. This sale is known as the heter mechira. Though controversial, manycontinue to rely upon it even today. The heter mechira is similar, conceptually, to the Jewish practice of selling chometz, leaven, to a non-Jew over Passover. By doing so, the Jew minimizes his liability for owning leaven during the Passover holiday.
To ensure that the sale of leaven is incontestable in its validity, numerous stringencies in the Torah laws of purchasing and selling are obsetved in the transaction. Most of these stringencies are not required or observed in the normal course of business. Many are employed by the sale of leaven to remove any possible question as to the validity of the sale.
As with the possession of leaven over Passover, the Jewish cultivation of land during the Shemittah year is a serious transgression. To remove any possible question as to the validity of the sale of land to Mr. Streichman (the non-Jew mentioned in the report), the Chief Rabbinate included every possible stringency in the process. One such stringency was having Mr. Streichman take an oath as a ger toshav before a beis din, a Jewish court.
Non-Jews are not permitted by Torah law to own land in Israel. However, the Rabbinate has relied on the definition of ger toshav; explained in the Meiri, Raavad, and the Rambam as understood by the Kesef Mishnah to Hilchos Issurei Biah 14:8 and Hilchos Avodas Kokhavim 10:6 to permit any civilized, non-idolatrous person to own land and reside in Israel. The Rabbinate has never required anyone to become a ger toshav before a beis din. This is because they acknowledge that the halacha isthat we do not grant such a status anymore.
There is no transgression, though, in allowing a non-Jew to appear before a beis din and pledge to observe the Noahide laws. For the sake of heter mechira only was the Chief Rabbinate strict to require such a pledge. Their official position, as confirmed today, is that no such pledge is necessary or made in our times to reside in Israel or otherwise be identified as a Noahide.
I hope that this brief letter will help to allay any confusion or unfortunate misinformation.
Rabbi Avraham Chaim Bloomenstiel 

General Editor 

The Pirchei Shoshanim Noahide Laws Project