Friday, March 29, 2019

Are Freemasons Noahides?


The question of whether Freemasons are official Noahides or not is of much interest to Noahide Law researchers as if they are this would mean that the Jews through this organization would have a greatly extended base of power and clout, indeed an international army prepared to enforce Noahide Law and slaughter dissident non-Jews. Albert Makey, a respected high ranking Freemason, Masonry encyclopedia compiler and Talmud researcher, in several of his works declares that Freemasons are "Noachides" and that they are obligated to follow the Noahide Laws, he also references other Freemasons who agreed; the same was stated by Rosicrucian writer Kenneth MacKenzie. It is said some Freemasons used the word "Noachide" interchangeably with "Mason". Perhaps more telling, in some of the earliest charters and founding documents of Freemasonry explicitly state that Freemasons are to follow the Noahide Laws. According to the almost Bible of Freemasonry, "Morals and Dogma" by Albert Pike, the 21 degree of Freemasonry is called the "Noachite, or Prussian Knight". The UK based Noahide group "www.Noachide.org" refers to both Mackey and MacKenzie as "brothers" and quotes passages which identify that the writers knew the Noahide Laws are connected to proselytism by Jews. It is interesting to note that according to Noahide run "www.WikiNoah.org" it would seem to them difficult to identify Freemasonry as Noahidism as Freemasonry does not set forth a structured cosmology or doctrine.  However, according to Albert Makey, Noah influenced the Masons through a mystery (secret) religion called Arkite Worship, the Masons are also known for their secrecy in general so they very well maybe self-identified Noahides. There have also been many both Jewish and Freemason writers who have equated Judaism with Freemasonry directly. To have such a wide and powerful organization at the behest of Israeli Rabbis who claim that non-Jews should be exterminated would be very worrying. 


Video
The Noahide Deception Part 5 - Judeo-Freemasonry


Freemasons Are Noahides
"Noachidae, Noachites. The descendents of Noah. A term applied to Freemasons. Noah having alone preserved the true name and worship of God, amid a race of impious idolaters. Freemasons claim to be his descendents, because they still preserve that pure religion which distinguished this second father of the human race from the rest of the world. And even when his descendents began again, in the plains of Shinar, to forget the Almighty, and to wander from the path of purity, the principles of Noah were still perpetuated by that portion of his race whom the Freemasons of the present day regard as their early predecessors. Hence, Freemasons call themselves Noachidae, or the sons of Noah."  
- (Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, page 324, 2004, Barnes and Noble Publishing, Inc.), Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: http://fourwinds10.com/siterun_data/history/zionism/news.php?q=1240855358
Noah Set Up The Noahide Laws
"After Noah’s emergence from the Ark, he is said to have promulgated seven precepts for the government of the new race of men of whom he was to be the progenitor... [1] To do justice [2] Worship God [3] Abstain from idolatry [4] Preserve chastity [5] Do not commit murder [6] Do not steal [7] Do not eat blood."
  "The history of Freemasonry" by Mackey, Albert Gallatin, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/historyfreemaso05singgoog/page/n7]


Noah's Mystery Religion Of Arkite Influenced Freemasonry (Secret Noahides?)
"The influence of Noah on Masonic doctrine is to be traced to the almost universal belief of men in the events of the deluge, and a consequent establishment in many nations of a system of religion known to ethnologists as the 'Arkite Worship... Hence arose that system known to modern scholars as the 'Arkite Worship' in whose rites and mysteries, which were eventually communicated to the other ancient religions. There were always some allusions to the events of the Noahic flood — to the Ark, as the WOMB OF NATURE, to the eight persons saved in it, as the Ogdoad or sacred number — and to the renovation of the world, as symbolizing the passage from death to immortal life." 
  "The history of Freemasonry" by Mackey, Albert Gallatin, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/historyfreemaso05singgoog/page/n7]

In Some Charges Of Freemasonry Freemasons Are To Follow Noahide Law
"...(A) revision of the Old Charges...contained this passage: 'A Mason is obliged by his tenure to obey the Moral Law.' In the edition of 1738, Dr. Anderson has, without authority, completed the sentence by adding the words, 'As a true Noachida. ...the only religious laws which a Freemason is required to obey are those which are contained in the code that has been attributed to Noah. This sentiment is still further expressed toward the close of the 'Old Charges' where it is said that the Mason is obliged only 'to that religion in which all men agree,' excluding therefore atheism and requiring the observance of such simple laws of morality as are enjoined in the precepts of Noah."  
  "The history of Freemasonry" by Mackey, Albert Gallatin, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/historyfreemaso05singgoog/page/n7]

Other Masons State Noahide Law Is Obligatory For Masons 
In the Krause MS., under the head of " The Laws or Obligations laid before his Brother Masons by Prince Edwin," we find the fol- lowing article. (I translate from the German of Krause, because the original English document is nowhere to be found.) " The first obligation is that you shall sincerely honor God and obey the laws of the Noachites, because they are divine laws, which should be obeyed by all the world. Therefore, you must avoid all heresies and not thereby sin against God."
  "The history of Freemasonry" by Mackey, Albert Gallatin, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/historyfreemaso05singgoog/page/n7]

Some Masons Refer To Themselves As Noahides (Follow Noahide Laws)
Anderson had, however, a particular object in the use of the word " Noachida." The Krause MS. says that the Mason "must obey the laws of the Noachites ; " that is, that he is to observe the seven precepts of Noah, without being required to observe any other religious dogmas outside of these — a matter which is left to himself. But Anderson says he "must obey the moral law as a true Noachida," by which he intimates that that title is the proper desig- nation of a Mason. And he has shown that this was his meaning by telling us, in a preceding part of his book, that " Noachidae was the first name of Masons, according to some old traditions."
  "The history of Freemasonry" by Mackey, Albert Gallatin, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/historyfreemaso05singgoog/page/n7] 

Old Charges States Freemasons Are Obliged To Follow Noahide Law
First of the Old Charges in the Book of Constitutions, edit., 1738. "A Mason is obliged by his tenure to ob- serve the moral law, as a true Noachida ; and if he rightly understands the Graft, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irre- ligious libertine, nor ad against conscience.
-  An Encyclopedia Of Freemasonry 1916 Vol 1 - A G Mackey, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://archive.org/details/An_Encyclopedia_Of_Freemasonry_1916_Vol_1_-_A_G_Mackey

The Noahide Laws Were Preserved In The Constitutions Of Freemason Brethrens, A Tradition Linked To Jewish Proselytism
Noachidæ, or Noachites – The descendants of Noah. A term applied to Freemasons. Noah having alone preserved the true name and worship of God, amid a race of impious idolaters, Freemasons claim to be his descendants, because they still preserve that pure religion which distinguished this second father of the human race from the rest of the world. And even when his descendants began again, in the plains of Shinar, to forget the Almighty, and to wander from the path of purity, the principles of Noah were still perpetuated by that portion of his race whom the Freemasons of the present day regard as their early predecessors. Hence Freemasons call themselves Noachidæ, or the sons of Noah.
Noah, Precepts of. – The precepts of the patriarch Noah, which were preserved as the constitutions of our ancient brethren, are seven in number, and are as follows: 
Renounce all idols.
Worship the only true God.
Commit no murder.
Be not defiled by incest.
Do not steal.
Be just.
Eat no flesh with blood in it. 
The “proselytes of the gate,” as the Jews termed those who lived among them without undergoing circumcision, or observing the ceremonial law, were bound to obey the seven precepts of Noah.
- From ‘A Lexicon of Freemasonry’, by Bro. Dr. Albert G. MacKey M. D., Published in 1845. Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: http://www.noachide.org.uk/History/history.html
1738 Constitution Obligated Freemasons To Follow The Noachide Code
"Noah, Precepts of. The precepts of the patriarch Noah, which were preserved as the constitutions of our ancient brethren, are seven in number, and are as follows: 1. Renounce all idols 2. Worship the only true God. 3. Commit no murder. 4. Be not defiled by incest. 5. Do not steal. 6. Be just. 7. Eat no flesh with blood in it. The 'proselytes of the gate', as the Jews termed those who lived among them without undergoing circumcision, or observing the ceremonial law, were bound to obey the seven precepts of Noah."  
- (Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, page 325, 2004, Barnes and Noble Publishing, Inc.)
Some Freemason Constitutions State Freemasons Are Obliged To Follow Noahide Law
Noachidæ. - Descendants of Noah. Applied in Masonic legend to the Craft in general, as being derived from Noah, traditionally claimed as the founder and father of Masonic theology, according to some theories, because the Masons preserved the traditions of the one God amidst the corruptions of surrounding faiths. In the second edition of Anderson’s “Constitutions” we read - “A Mason is obliged by his tenure to observe the moral law as a true Noachida.”
Noah, Precepts of. - Certain commandments transmitted to our times in documents of the ancient stonemasons, of no historical value, are thus called. They are- 
Renounce all idols;
Worship the only true God;
Commit no murder;
Be not defiled with incest;
Do not steal;
Be just;
Eat no flesh with blood in it. 
These have been preserved in the Talmud. Maimonides says that the first six precepts were enunciated by Adam, and the seventh by Noah. They are not mentioned by Onkelos, Josephus, or Philo; still, they have been adopted by the Rabbins.
- From ‘The Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia’ by Bro. Kenneth MacKenzie. Published in 1877. http://www.noachide.org.uk/History/history.html
Freemasons Are Called Noachidae:
Noachidae: The descendants of Noah. A term applied to Freemasons on the theory, derived from thenLegend of the Craft, that Noah was the father and founder of the Masonic system of theology. Henee the Freemasons claim to be his descendants, because in times past they preserved the pure principles of his religion amid the corruptions of surrounding faiths. Doctor Anderson first used the word in this sense in the second edition of the Book of Constitutions: "A Mason is obliged by his tenure to observe the moral law as a true Noachida." But he was not the inventor of the term, for it occurs in a letter sent by the Grand Lodge of England to the Grand Lodge of Calcutta in 1735, which letter is preserved among the Rawlinson Manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (see Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume xi, page 35).  
- From "Noachidae" entry in ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. 
Freemasons Believe In The Noahide Legend
 It was in the six hundredth year of his age, that Noah, with his family, was released from the Ark. Grateful for his preservation, he erected an altar and prepared a sacrifice of thankofferinga to the Deity. A Masonic tradition says, that for this purpose he made use of that Stone of Foundation which he had discovered in the subterranean vault of Enoch, and which he had carried with him into the Ark. It was at this time that God made his Covenant with Noah, and promised him that the earth should never again be destroyed by a flood. Here, too, he received those commandments for the government of himself and his posterity which have been called "the seven precepts of the Noachidae."  
- From ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.
There Was/Is A Freemason Order Called "Order Of The Nochites"
An Order under this name, called also the French Order of Noachites, was established at Paris, in 1816, by some of the adherents of the Emperor Napoleon. It was divided into three Degrees: 1. Knight 2. Commander 3. Grand Elect The last Degree was subdivided into three points i. Secret Judge ii. Perfect Initiate iii. Knight of the Crown of Oak   
- From ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.



"Noachide, Sovereign" is the title of a Freemason Degree (different from the 21st Degree Noachite)
 NOACHITE, SOVEREIGN: The French title is Noachite Souverain. A Degree contained in the nomenclature of Fustier.  
- From ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.

The 21 Degree of Scottish Rite Freemasonry Is The "Noachite"
XXI.
NOACHITE, OR PRUSSIAN KNIGHT.
- Morals And Dogma by Albert Pike, Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/apikefr.html 


"Freemasonry Is Judaism"
From Jewish Sources 

 - The Noahide Deception Part 5 - Judeo-Freemasonry. Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpSErLzCFMk

"Masonry is based on Judaism. Eliminate the teachings of Judaism from the Masonic Ritual and what is left?" - Jewish Tribune of New York October 28th 1927

"Freemasonry is a Jewish establishment, whose: history; grades; official appointments; passwords; and explanations, are Jewish from beginning to end. " - Isaac Mayer Wise. Well known Rabbi. 1927

"The technical language, symbolism, and rites of Mason are full of Jewish ideas and terms. In the Scottish rite, the dates of all the official documents are given according to the Hebrew month and the Jewish era; and use is made of the older forms of the Jewish alphabet. "- Jewish Encyclopedia 1903, Vol. 5, page 503

"Masonry tolerates everything except a clericalism (Catholicism) and it possesses a special attraction for Jews. Clericalism has always persecuted Masonry everywhere. There exists between Jews and Freemasons an invisible but potent natural alliance against a common enemy... Together they fight ... against religious fanaticism and racial antipathies. "- JEWISH CHRONICLE, Oct. 19, 1889.

"Masonic theology corresponds well enough to that of the Kabbala.. "- Rabbi Elle Benamozegh (Israel et L'Humanite, p.73)

"But the spirit of Freemasonry is that of Judaism in its most fundamental beliefs; its ideas are Judaic, its language is Judaic, its very organization, almost, is Judaic... "- Parisian Jewish Review La Verite Israelite 1861


Freemasonry IS Judaism 
What Freemasons Say

 - The Noahide Deception Part 5 - Judeo-Freemasonry. Retrieved 02/29/2020 From: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpSErLzCFMk

"All truly dogmatic religions have issued from the Kabalah and return to it; everything scientific and grand in the religious dreams of all the Illuminati, Jacob Boeheme, Swedenborg, Saint Martin, and others, is borrowed from the Kabalah: all Masonic associations owe to it their Secrets and their Symbols. " (Kabalah = Jewish Mysticism) - Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma Of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry'

We know that both the modern Jews and the
Freemasons are obsessive about rebuilding Solomons
Temple. So the link between the two systems is established
from the evidence we've seen already.

"Take from Freemasonry its dependence upon the temple, leave out of its ritual all reference to that sacred edifice, and to the legends connected with it, and the system itself must at once decay and die"

- Albert Mackey, The Symbolism Of Freemasonry




WikiNoah, Freemasonsry 



Freemasonry is a fraternal organization, existing in various forms worldwide, whose membership has shared Morality and metaphysics ideals and in most of its branches requires a constitutional declaration of belief in a Supreme Being.[1]
Freemasonry is administratively organized into Grand Lodges (or sometimes Orients) that govern a particular jurisdiction made up of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. Grand Lodges recognize each other through a process of Masonic Landmarks and Regular Masonic jurisdictions. There are also Masonic appendant bodies, which are organizations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration.
Freemasonry uses the metaphors of operative stonemason tools and implements, against the allegory backdrop of the building of Solomon's Temple, to convey what is most generally defined as "a system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."[2]
While it has often been called a "secret society", it is more correct to say that it is an Esotericism society, in that certain aspects are private.[3] From many quarters, Freemasons have stated that Freemasonry has, in the 21st century, become less a secret society and more of a "society with secrets."[4] The private aspects of modern Freemasonry are the modes of recognition amongst members and particular elements within the ritual.[5]
While there have been many disclosures and exposés dating as far back as the eighteenth century, these often lack the proper context for true understanding of the content,[6] may be outdated for various reasons,[7] or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author, as in the case of the Taxil hoax.[8]

Organizational structure


Grand Lodges and Grand Orients are independent and Sovereignty bodies that govern Masonry in a given country, state, or geographical area (termed a jurisdiction).[9] There is no single overarching governing body that presides over world-wide Freemasonry; connections between different jurisdictions depend solely on mutual recognition.[10]

Regularity

There are two major branches of Freemasonry: "regular"[3] Grand Lodges that are recognized by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) and "liberal" or irregular Grand Orients that are recognized by the Grand Orient de France. Irregular also encompasses any other Masonic group not recognized by the UGLE.[11] However, the usage of "Lodge" versus "Orient" alone is not an indicator of regularity.
Regularity is a constitutional mechanism by which Grand Lodges or Grand Orients give one another mutual recognition. This recognition allows formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level, and gives individual Freemasons the opportunity to attend meetings at Lodges in other recognized jurisdictions. Conversely, regularity wikt:proscribe interaction with Lodges that are irregular. A Mason who visits an irregular Lodge may have his membership suspended for a time, or he may be expelled. For this reason, all Grand Lodges maintain lists of other jurisdictions and lodges they consider regular.[12]
Grand Lodges that afford mutual recognition and allow intervisitation are said to be wikt:amity. As far as the UGLE is concerned, regularity is predicated upon a number of Masonic Landmarks, set down in the UGLE Constitution and the Constitutions of those Grand Lodges with which they are in amity. Even within this definition there are some variations with the quantity and content of the Landmarks from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Other Masonic groups organise differently.[13]

The Masonic Lodge

Main article: Masonic Lodge
A Lodge (often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Masonic constitutions) is the basic organizational unit of Freemasonry. Every new Lodge must be warranted by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published Constitution of the jurisdiction. A Lodge must hold full meetings regularly at published dates and places. It will elect, initiate and promote its own members and officers; it will own, occupy or share premises; and will normally build up a collection of minutes, records and equipment. Like any other organization it will have formal business, annual general meetings (AGMs), Charitable organization, committees, reports, bank accounts and tax returns, and so forth.
A man can only be initiated, or made a Mason, in a Lodge, of which he may well remain a subscribing member for life. A Master Mason is generally entitled to visit any Lodge meeting under any jurisdiction in amity with his own, and a Lodge may well offer hospitality to such a visitor after the formal meeting. He is first usually required to check the regularity of that Lodge, and must be able to satisfy that Lodge of his own regularity; and he may be refused admission if adjudged likely to disrupt the harmony of the Lodge. If he wishes to visit the same Lodge repeatedly, he may be expected to join it, and pay a membership subscription.
Freemasons correctly meet as a Lodge, not in a Lodge, although Masonic premises may be called Lodges or Temples ("of Philosophy and The arts"). In many countries, Masonic Centre or Hall has replaced Temple to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different Lodges, as well as other Masonic organisations, often use the same premises at different times.
Early Lodges often met in a tavern or any other convenient fixed place with a private room.[14] According to Masonic tradition, the Lodge of medieval stonemasons was on the southern side of the building site, with the sun warming the stones during the day. The social Festive Board (or Social Board),[15] part of the meeting is thus sometimes called the South.[16]
Most Lodges consist of Freemasons living or working within a given town or neighbourhood. Other Lodges are composed of Masons with a particular shared interest, profession or background. Shared schools, university, military units, Masonic appointments or degrees, arts, professions and hobby have all been the qualifications for such Lodges. In some Lodges, the foundation and name may now be only of historic interest, as over time the membership evolves beyond that envisaged by its "founding brethren"; in others, the membership remains exclusive.
There are also specialist Lodges of Research, with membership drawn from Master Masons only, with interests in Masonic Research (of history, philosophy, etc.). Lodges of Research are fully warranted but, generally, do not initiate new candidates. Lodges of Instruction in UGLE may be warranted by any ordinary Lodge for the learning and rehearsal of Masonic Ritual.

Lodge Officers

Main article: Masonic Lodge Officers
Every Masonic Lodge elects certain officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's work. These are the Worshipful Master (essentially the lodge President), the Senior and Junior Wardens (Vice Presidents), the Secretary and the Treasurer. In addition to these elected officers, lodges will have various appointed officers such as Stewards, a Tyler, and a Chaplain appointed to lead a non-denominational prayer at the convocation of meetings or activities (often, but not necessarily, a clergyman). The specific offices and their functions vary between jurisdictions.
Many offices are replicated at Provincial and Grand Lodge levels, but with the addition of the word 'Grand' somewhere in the title. For example, where every lodge has a 'Junior Warden', each Grand Lodge has a 'Grand Junior Warden'. In addition there are a number of offices that exist only at the Grand Lodge level.[14]

Prince Hall Freemasonry

Main article: Prince Hall Freemasonry
Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events in the early United States that led to a tradition of separate, predominantly African-American Freemasonry in North America.
In 1775, an African American named Prince Hall[17] was initiated into an Irish Constitution Military Lodge then in Boston, Massachusetts, along with fourteen other African-Americans, all of whom were free-born. When the Military Lodge left North America, those fifteen men were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, form Processions on the days of the Saints John, and conduct Masonic funerals, but not to confer degrees, nor to do other Masonic work. In 1784 these individuals applied for, and obtained, a Lodge Warrant from the Premier Grand Lodge of England and formed African Lodge, Number 459 (Premier Grand Lodge of England). When the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) was formed in 1813, all U.S. based Lodges were stricken from their rolls – due largely to the War of 1812. Thus, separated from both UGLE and any concordantly recognised U.S. Grand Lodge, African Lodge re-titled itself as the African Lodge, Number 1—and became a de facto "Grand Lodge" (this Lodge is not to be confused with the various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa). As with the rest of U.S. Freemasonry, Prince Hall Freemasonry soon grew and organised on a Grand Lodge system for each state.
Widespread Racial segregation, in the 19th and early 20th century North America, made it difficult for African Americans to join Lodges outside of Prince Hall jurisdictions—and impossible for inter-jurisdiction recognition between the parallel U.S. Masonic authorities.
Prince Hall Masonry has always been Regular Masonic jurisdictions in all respects except constitutional separation, and this separation has diminished in recent years. At present, Prince Hall Grand Lodges are recognized by some UGLE Concordant Grand Lodges and not by others, but appear to be working toward full recognition, with UGLE granting at least some degree of recognition.[18] There are a growing number of both Prince Hall Lodges and non-Prince Hall Lodges that have ethnically diverse membership.

Other degrees, orders and bodies

Main article: Masonic appendant bodies
There is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason.[19] There are, however, a number of organizations that require being a Master Mason as a prerequisite for membership.[20] These bodies have no authority over the Craft.[21] These orders or degrees may be described as additional or appendant, and often provide a further perspective on some of the allegorical, moral and philosophical content of Freemasonry.
Masonic appendant bodies are administered separately from Craft Grand Lodges but are styled Masonic since every member must be a Mason. However, Craft Masonic jurisdictions vary in their relationships with such bodies, if a relationship exists at all. The Articles of Union of the "Modern" and "Antient" craft Grand Lodges (into UGLE in 1813) limited recognition to certain degrees, such as the York Rite and the "chivalric degrees", but there were and are many other degrees that have been worked since before the Union. Some bodies are not universally considered to be appendant bodies, but rather separate organizations that happen to require prior Masonic affiliation for membership. Some of these organizations have additional requirements, such as religious adherence (e.g. requiring members to profess Trinitarian Christian beliefs) or membership of other bodies.
Quite apart from these, there are organisations that are often thought of as related to Freemasonry, but which are in fact not related at all, and are not accorded recognition as Masonic, such as the Orange Institution, which originated in Ireland, or the International Order of Odd Fellows.

Principles and activities

Ritual, symbolism, and morality

Masonic ritual makes use of the architecture symbolism of the tools of the medieval operative stonemason. Freemasons, as Speculative Masons (meaning philosophical building rather than actual building), use this symbolism to teach moral and ethical lessons of the principles of "Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth" — or as related in France: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité".[14]
Two of the principal symbols always found in a Lodge are the steel square and Compass (drafting). Some Lodges and rituals explain these symbols as lessons in conduct: for example, that Masons should "square their actions by the square of virtue" and to learn to "circumscribe their desires and keep their passions within due bounds toward all mankind". However, as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic, there is no general interpretation for these symbols (or any Masonic symbol) that is used by Freemasonry as a whole.[22]
These moral lessons are communicated in performance of allegorical ritual. A candidate progresses through degrees[21] gaining knowledge and understanding of himself, his relationship with others and his relationship with the Supreme Being (as per his own interpretation). While the philosophical aspects of Freemasonry tend to be discussed in Lodges of Instruction or Research, and sometimes informal groups, Freemasons, and others, frequently publish — to a variable degree of competence — studies that are available to the public. It is well noted, however, that no one person "speaks" for the whole of Freemasonry.[23]
The Volume of the Sacred Law is always displayed in an open Lodge. In English-speaking countries, this is frequently the King James Version of the Bible or another standard translation; there is no such thing as an exclusive "Masonic Bible".[24] In many French Lodges, the Masonic Constitutions are used instead. Furthermore, a candidate is given his choice of religious text for his Obligation, according to his beliefs. UGLE alludes to similarities to legal practice in the UK, and to a common source with other oath taking processes.[25][26][27][28] In Lodges with a membership of mixed religions it is common to find more than one sacred text displayed.
In keeping with the geometrical and architectural theme of Freemasonry, the Supreme Being is referred to in Masonic ritual by the titles of the Great Architect of the UniverseGrand Geometer or similar, to make clear that the reference is generic, and not tied to a particular religion's conception of God.[29]

Degrees

The three degrees of Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry are those of:
  1. Entered Apprentice - the degree of an Initiate, which makes one a Mason;
  2. Fellow Craft - an intermediate degree;
  3. Master Mason - the "third degree", a necessary qualification for participation in almost any aspect of Masonry.
The degrees represent stages of personal development. No Freemason is told that there is only one meaning to the allegories; as a Freemason works through the degrees and studies their lessons, he interprets them for himself, his personal interpretation being bounded only by the Constitution within which he works.[24] A common symbolic structure and universal archetypes provide a means for each Freemason to come to his own answers to life's important philosophical questions.
As previously stated, there is no degree of Craft Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason.[21] Although some Masonic bodies and orders have further degrees named with higher numbers, these degrees may be considered to be supplements to the Master Mason degree rather than promotions from it.[20] An example is the Scottish Rite, conferring degrees numbered from 4° up to 33°.[30] It is essential to be a Master Mason in order to qualify for these further degrees. They are administered on a parallel system to Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry; within each organization there is a system of offices, which confer rank within that degree or order alone.
In some jurisdictions, especially those in continental Europe, Freemasons working through the degrees may be asked to prepare papers on related philosophical topics, and present these papers in open Lodge. There is an enormous bibliography of Masonic papers, magazines and publications ranging from fanciful abstractions which construct spiritual and moral lessons of varying value, through practical handbooks on organisation, management and ritual performance, to serious historical and philosophical papers entitled to academic respect.

Signs, grips and words

Freemasons use signs (gestures), grips or tokens (handshakes) and words to gain admission to meetings and identify legitimate visitors. There is no evidence that these modes of recognition were in use prior to the mid-1600s when speculative members were first admitted to Lodges. The easiest way to determine an operative Mason's qualification was the quality of his work.[31]
From the early 18th century onwards, many exposés have been written claiming to reveal these signs, grips and passwords to the uninitiated. However, as Masonic scholar Christopher Hodapp states, since each Grand Lodge is free to create its own rituals,[32] the signs, grips and passwords can and do differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.[14]Furthermore, historian John J. Robinson states that Grand Lodges can and do change their rituals frequently, updating the language used, adding or omitting sections.[7] Therefore, any exposé is only valid for a particular jurisdiction at a particular time.

Obligations

Obligations are those elements of ritual in which a candidate swears to protect the "secrets of Freemasonry", which are the various signs, tokens and words associated with recognition in each degree.[5] In regular jurisdictions these obligations are sworn on the aforementioned Volume of the Sacred Law.
Details of the obligations vary; some versions are published[5] while others are privately printed. Still other jurisdictions rely on oral transmission of ritual, and thus have no ritual books at all.[33] Moreover, not all printed rituals are authentic - Taxil hoax exposure was a proven hoax, and there are others.
The obligations are historically known amongst various sources critical of Freemasonry for their so-called "bloody penalties,"[34] an allusion to the apparent physical penalties associated with each degree. This leads to some descriptions of the Obligations as "Oaths". The corresponding text, with regard to the penalties, does not appear in authoritative, endorsed sources,[5] following a decision "that all references to physical penalties be omitted from the obligations taken by Candidates in the three Degrees and by a Master Elect at his Installation but retained elsewhere in the respective ceremonies".[35] The penalties are interpreted symbolically, and are not applied in actuality by a Lodge or by any other body of Masonry. The descriptive nature of the penalties alludes to how the candidate should feel about himself should he knowingly violate his obligation, being a wilfully perjured individual.[36]

Landmarks

Main article: Masonic Landmarks
The Landmarks of Masonry are defined as ancient and unchangeable precepts; standards by which the regularity of Lodges and Grand Lodges are judged. Each Grand Lodge is self-governing and no single authority exists over the whole of Freemasonry. The interpretation of these principles therefore can and does vary, leading to controversies of recognition.
The concept of Masonic Landmarks appears in Masonic regulations as early as 1723, and seem to be adopted from the regulations of operative masonic guilds. In 1858, Albert G. Mackey attempted to set down 25 Landmarks.[37] In 1863, George Oliver published a Freemason's Treasury in which he listed 40 Landmarks. A number of American Grand Lodges have attempted the task of enumerating the Landmarks; numbers differing from West Virginia (7) and New Jersey (10) to Nevada (39) and Kentucky (54).[38]

Charitable effort

The fraternity is widely involved in charity and community service activities. In contemporary times, money is collected only from the membership, and is to be devoted to charitablepurposes. Freemasonry worldwide disburses substantial charitable amounts to non-Masonic charities, locally, nationally and internationally. In earlier centuries, however, charitable funds were collected more on the basis of a Provident or Friendly Society, and there were elaborate regulations to determine a petitioner's eligibility for consideration for charity, according to strictly Masonic criteria.
Some examples of Masonic charities include:
  • Homes[39][40] that provide sheltered housing or nursing care.
  • Education with both educational grants[41] or Royal Masonic School[42] which are open to all and not limited to the families of Freemasons.
  • Medical assistance.[43]

Membership requirements



A candidate for Freemasonry must apply to a lodge in his community, obtaining an introduction by asking an existing member, who then becomes the candidate's sponsor. In some jurisdictions, it is required that the petitioner ask three times, however this is becoming less prevalent.[44] In other jurisdictions, more open advertising is utilized to inform potential candidates where to go for more information. Regardless of how a potential candidate receives his introduction to a Lodge, he must be freely elected by secret ballot in open Lodge. Members approving his candidacy will vote with "white balls" in the voting box. Adverse votes by "black balls" will exclude a candidate. The number of adverse votes necessary to reject a candidate, which in some jurisdictions is as few as one, is set out in the governing Constitution of the presiding Grand Lodge.

General requirements


Generally, to be a regular Freemason, a candidate must:[21]

  • Be a man who comes of his own free will.
  • Believe in a Supreme Being.
  • Be at least the minimum age (18–25 years old depending on the jurisdiction).
  • Be of sound mind and body (Lodges do not deny membership to a man because of a physical disability; this is largely a historical holdover, and if a potential candidate says there will be no problem, he will be taken at his word), of good morals, and of good repute.
  • Be free-born (or "born free", i.e. not born a Slavery or bondsman. As with the previous, this is entirely an historical anachronism, and can be interpreted in the same manner as it is in the context of writing a will. Some jurisdictions have removed this requirement).
  • Have character references, as well as one or two references from current Masons, depending on jurisdiction.

Deviation from one or more of these requirements is generally the barometer of Masonic regularity or irregularity. However, an accepted deviation in some regular jurisdictions is to allow a Lewis (the son of a Mason),[45] to be initiated earlier than the normal minimum age for that jurisdiction, although no earlier than the age of 18.

Some Grand Lodges in the United States have an additional residence requirement, candidates being expected to have lived within the jurisdiction for certain period of time, typically six months.[46]

Membership and religion


Freemasonry explicitly and openly states that it is neither a religion nor a substitute for one. "There is no separate Masonic God", nor a separate proper name for a deity in any branch of Freemasonry.[47][48]

Regular Freemasonry requires that its candidates believe in a Supreme Being, the interpretation of the term being subject to the conscience of the candidate. This means that men from a wide range of faiths, including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism can all become Masons.

Since the early 19th Century, in the irregular Continental European tradition (meaning irregular to those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE), a very broad interpretation has been given to a (non-dogmatic) Supreme Being; in the tradition of Baruch Spinoza and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - or views of The Ultimate Cosmic Oneness - along with Western atheistic idealism and agnosticism.

Freemasonry in Scandinavia, known as the Swedish Rite, on the other hand, accepts only Christians.[14] Some of the appendant bodies (or portions thereof) in some jurisdictions also have religious requirements, but have no restrictions at the lodge level.

Women and Freemasonry

Main article: Women and Freemasonry
Traditionally, in regular Freemasonry, only men can be made Masons. Many Grand Lodges do not admit women because they believe it would violate the ancient Landmarks. However, there are many female orders associated with regular Freemasonry and its appendant bodies, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, the Order of the Amaranth, the White Shrine of Jerusalem, the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile. In addition, there are many non-mainstream Masonic bodies that do admit both men and women or exclusively women. Co-Freemasonry admits both men and women, but it is held to be irregular because it admits women. The systematic admission of women into International Co-Freemasonry began in France in 1882.

History

Main article: History of Freemasonry
File:Goose and Gridiron.jpg
Goose and Gridiron, Home to a London Lodge forming GLE
The first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of England (GLE), was founded in 1717, when four existing London Lodges met for a joint dinner. This rapidly expanded into a regulatory body, which almost all English Lodges joined. From the 1750s onwards, two competing English Grand Lodges vied for supremacy - the "Moderns" (GLE) and the "Ancients" (or "Antients"). They finally united in 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE). The Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland were formed in 1725 and 1736 respectively. Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America by the 1730s - with both the "Ancients" and the "Moderns" (as well as the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland) chartering offspring ("daughter") Lodges, and organizing various Provincial Grand Lodges. After the American Revolution, independent US Grand Lodges formed themselves within the State boundaries. Some thought was briefly given to organizing an over-arching "Grand Lodge of the United States", with George Washington as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived. The various State Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body.[49]
Although there are no real differences in the Freemasonry practiced by one or the other, the remnants of this division can still be seen in the names of most Lodges: F.& A.M. being Free and Accepted Masons vs. A.F.& A.M. being Antient Free and Accepted Masons.
The oldest jurisdiction on the continent of Europe, the Grand Orient de France (GOdF), was founded in 1728. Most English-speaking jurisdictions cut formal relations with the GOdF, however, around 1877.[14] The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF)[50] is currently the only French Grand Lodge that is in regular amity with the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) and its many concordant jurisdictions worldwide.
Due to the above history, Freemasonry is often said to consist of two branches not in mutual regular amity:
  • the UGLE and concordant tradition of jurisdictions (termed Grand Lodges) in amity, and
  • the GOdF, European Continental, tradition of jurisdictions (often termed Grand Orients) in amity.
In most Latin countries, the GOdF style of European Continental Freemasonry predominates, although in most of these Latin countries there are also Grand Lodges that are in regular amity with the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) and the worldwide community of Grand Lodges that share regular "fraternal relations" with the UGLE. The rest of the world, accounting for the bulk of Freemasonry, tends to follow more closely to the UGLE style, although minor variations exist.

Opposition to Freemasonry

Main article: Anti-Masonry
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "Avowed opposition to Freemasonry".[51] However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form.

Religious opposition

Freemasonry has attracted criticism and suppression from theocracy states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion, or supposed heterodoxy within the Fraternity itself, and has long been the target of Conspiracy theory theories, which see it as an occult and evil power.

Christian anti-Masonry

Although members of various faiths cite objections, certain Christian religious denomination have had the highest profile negative attitudes to Masonry, banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons.
The objections raised by the Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic deistic religion which is in conflict with Church dogma. However, those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion. There is no separate 'Masonic deity', and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry".[52] The Catholic Church is also troubled by Masonry's openness to members of other faiths, implying that any organization which fails specifically to endorse their faith thereby rejects it.[53]
A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. The first was Pope Clement XII In Eminenti, April 28 1738; the last was Pope Leo XIII Ab Apostolici, October 15 1890. In 1983, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, issued Quaesitum est, which states that: "...the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion." Freemasonry has no prohibitions on accepting Roman Catholics as members.[54] In 2005 the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy (RGLI), in amity with UGLE[55] announced that it had installed a Roman Catholic priest as its Grand Chaplain. (This office requires that the holder be a Freemason, but not necessarily be in Holy Orders).[56]
The negative reaction of "Grand Orient" Continental European Freemasonry to what was perceived as Catholicism's theocratic and authoritarian political influence has in countries such as Italy, Spain and Portugal historically tended towards anticlericalism, secularism and at times even total Anti-Catholicism.[57]
In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism, Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism and occultism. Albert Pike is often cited as an authority for the position of Masonry on these issues. However, Pike, although undoubtedly learned, was not a spokesman for Freemasonry and was controversial among freemasons in general, representing his personal opinion only, and furthermore an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the USA alone. Indeed his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry.[58]
Since the founding of Freemasonry, many Bishops of the Church of England have been Freemasons, such as Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher.[59] In the past, few members of the Church of England would have seen any incongruity in concurrently adhering to Anglican Christianity and practicing Freemasonry. In recent decades, however, reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism, perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church. The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, appears to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual, whilst being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England. In 2003 he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth.[60]

Muslim anti-Masonry

Islamic anti-Masonry is closely tied with Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism, though other criticisms are made.[61] In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein ruling Ba'ath Party, making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including Freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organizations."[62]

Political opposition

Regular Freemasonry has in its core ritual a formal obligation: to be quiet and peaceable citizens, true to the lawful government of the country in which they live, and not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion.[24] A Freemason makes a further obligation, before being made Master of his Lodge, to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrates.[24] The words may be varied across Grand Lodges, but the sense in the obligation taken is always there. Nevertheless, much of the political opposition to Freemasonry is based upon the idea that Masonry will foment (or sometimes prevent) rebellion.
Conspiracy theorists have long associated Freemasonry with the New World Order and the Illuminati, and state that Freemasonry as an organization is either bent on world domination or already secretly in control of world politics. Historically, Freemasonry has attracted criticism - and suppression - from both the politically Far right (e.g. Nazi Germany)[63][64] and the Far left (e.g. the former Communist states in Eastern Europe). The Fraternity has encountered both applause for “founding”, and opposition for supposedly thwarting, liberal democracy (such as the United States of America).
In some countries anti-Masonry is often related to anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. Professor Andrew Prescott, of the University of Sheffield, writes: "Since at least the time of the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, anti-semitism has gone hand in hand with anti-masonry, so it is not surprising that allegations that September 11, 2001 attacks was a Zionist plot have been accompanied by suggestions that the attacks were inspired by a masonic world order."[65]
In 1799 English Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to Parliamentary proclamation. In the wake of the French Revolution, the Unlawful Societies Act, 1799 banned any meetings of groups that required their members to take an oath or obligation.[66] The Grand Masters of both the Moderns and the Antients Grand Lodges called on the Prime Minister William Pitt, (who was not a Freemason) and explained to him that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and was much involved in charitable work. As a result Freemasonry was specifically exempted from the terms of the Act, provided that each Private Lodge's Secretary placed with the local "Clerk of the Peace" a list of the members of his Lodge once a year.[66] This continued until 1967 when the obligation of the provision was rescinded by Parliament of the United Kingdom.[66]
Freemasonry in America faced political pressure following the disappearance of anti-Masonic agitator William Morgan (anti-Mason) in 1826. Reports of the "Morgan Affair" helped fuel an Anti-Masonic movement, culminating in the formation of a short lived Anti-Masonic Party which fielded candidates for the Presidential elections of 1828 and 1832.
Even in modern democracies, Freemasonry is still sometimes accused of being a network where individuals engage in cronyism, using their Masonic connections for political influence and shady business dealings. This is officially and explicitly deplored in Freemasonry.[24] It is also charged that men become Freemasons through patronage or that they are offered incentives to join. This is not the case; no one lodge member may control membership in the lodge and in order to start the process of becoming a Freemason, an individual must ask to join the Fraternity "freely and without persuasion."[24]
In Italy, Freemasonry has become linked to a scandal concerning the Propaganda Due Lodge (aka P2). This Lodge was Chartered by the Grande Oriente d'Italia in 1877, as a Lodge for visiting Masons unable to attend their own lodges. Under Licio Gelli’s leadership, in the late 1970s, the P2 Lodge became involved in the financial scandals that nearly bankrupted the Vatican Bank. However, by this time the lodge was operating independently and irregularly; as the Grand Lodge d'Italia had revoked its charter in 1976.[67] By 1982 the scandal became public knowledge and Gelli was formally expelled from Freemasonry.
The United Kingdom Labour Party (UK) government, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, attempted to require all members of fraternal organisations who are public officials to make their affiliation public.[68][69] This was challenged under European human rights legislation, and the government in enacting the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law,[70] had to curtail the scope of their requirements.[71] Arrangements for the declaration of Freemasonry membership have been established for the current Lay Magistracy, Judiciary, and voluntary registration was introduced in 1999 for the Police Service.[72] Decisions on whether information should be released are the responsibility of the public authority receiving the request, on a case-by-case basis, acting in accordance with the principles of the Freedom of Information Act, 2000.[73]

The Holocaust

Main article: Holocaust
The preserved records of the RSHA (Reich Security Main Office) show the persecution of Freemasons.[74] RSHA Amt VII (Written Records) was overseen by Professor Franz Six and was responsible for "ideological" tasks, by which was meant the creation of anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. While the number is not accurately known, it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons were exterminated under the Nacht und Nebel.[14] Masonic concentration camp inmates were graded as political prisoners and wore an inverted Nazi concentration camp badges.[75]
The small blue forget-me-not flower was first used by the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne, in 1926, as a Masonic emblem at the annual convention in Bremen (city), Germany. In 1938 the forget-me-not badge – made by the same factory as the Masonic badge – was chosen for the annual Nazi Party Winterhilfswerk; a supposed charitable organization, which actually collected money used for rearmament. This coincidence enabled Freemasons to wear the forget-me-not badge as a secret sign of membership.[76][77][78]
After World War II, the forget-me-not[79] flower was again used as a Masonic emblem at the first Annual Convention of the United Grand Lodges of Germany in 1948. The badge is now worn in the coat lapel by Freemasons around the world to remember all those that have suffered in the name of Freemasonry, and specifically those during the Nazi era.[80][81]

Cultural references

There are many books, plays, movies, television shows, and other types of mass media and popular culture that include references to Freemasonry. Those listed below are those where Freemasonry figures prominently. There are many books and websites dedicated to giving a more complete list of cultural references to Freemasonry.[82]
  • Freemason[83] Rudyard Kipling used Masonic symbols and characters in his works, most notably The Man Who Would Be King, in which two adventurers are taken to be Masonic representatives of Alexander the Great. This story was adapted and The Man Who Would Be King (film) by John Huston, in 1975.
  • Leo Tolstoy novel War and Peace contains many references to Freemasonry.
  • The plot of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") contains several references to Masonic ideals and ceremonies. Mozart and his librettist Emanuel Schikaneder were both members of Lodge of the Nine Muses.
  • The graphic novel From Hell by Alan Moore and the movie based upon it feature as their basic premise a Jack the Ripper royal conspiracy theories linking "certain Freemasons" to the Jack the Ripper murders. The story is that "Freemason" William Withey Gull, the then British Royal Household's physician, covered up a child of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence born to a Catholic shop girl "by killing her, and all the women who knew about the baby". The story depends on the assumption that such figures as the Marquess of Salisbury, Sir William Gull and Sir Robert Anderson were Freemasons, but there is no actual record of their initiation into Freemasonry in any Lodge.
  • Freemasons feature heavily in The Illuminatus! Trilogy.
  • Monty Python's Flying Circus satire Freemasons in the "How to recognise a Freemason" and "Architect's Sketch" sketches.
  • The Freemasons are satire in an episode of The Simpsons, titled "Homer the Great", as Stonecutters.
  • Foucault's Pendulum (book) by Umberto Eco deals with Masonic themes.
  • The plot of the 2004 movie National Treasure (film) revolves heavily around the Freemasons and is somewhat unusual in that it depicts them in a benign light.
  • In The Baron in the Trees Italian writer Italo Calvino includes Masonic Lodges branching out into the lands of Ombrosa with the protagonist of the novel, Cosimo di Rondo, mysteriously and supposedly involved with them.
  • Katherine Kurtz and Deborah Turner Harris use Freemasonry in their series The Adept, most notably in The Adept Book Two: The Lodge of the Lynx, and in Kurtz's American Revolution historical novel Two Crowns for America, which links Freemasonry and Jacobitism.
  • Brad Meltzer discusses Freemasonry in his 2006 novel, The Book of Fate.
  • In the song Secret Handshakes on The Ataris' 2007 album Welcome The Night, Kris Roe talks of his father's involvement with the Freemasons.

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