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The Talmud is very complicated, not every statement is a law, sometimes it is a commentary or the opinion of a certain Rabbi, sometimes a stipulation or refutation, however the quotes below should give you a good idea about Talmudic reasoning on certain issues.
The Babylonian Talmud suggests Jews should not accept charity from non-Jews in public for this is an offense against god, but they may take charity in private where no one will find out or if their lives are in danger. Besides this, the Talmud makes it clear that all the charity done by non-Jews (Gentiles)(Heathens) is sinful because non-Jews only give charity to boast, be haughty and have domination. Only Jews are said to give charity for its own sake.
JEWS SHOULD NOT ACCEPT GIFTS FROM GENTILES IN PUBLIC, THEY CAN ACCEPT GIFTS FROM GENTILES IN PRIVATE THOUGH, OR IN PUBLIC IF THEIR LIVES ARE IN DANGER
R. Nahman said: Those who accept charity from Gentiles are incompetent as witnesses; provided, however, that they accept it publicly, but not if they accept it in private. And even if publicly [accepted], the law is applicable only if, when it was possible for them to obtain it privately they yet degraded themselves by open acceptance. But where [private receipt] is impossible, it [public acceptance] is vitally necessary. – 1962 Soncino Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 26b
26. Lit., ‘Those who eat of a thing unnamed (other).’ [H] is the colloquial term for pork; the whole expression is metaphorical, and is meant as translated in the text. (V. Rashi and Tosaf.)
27. For such an action is regarded as a profanation of ‘The Name’, and he who performs it is regarded as wicked.
28. Lit., ‘it is a matter of life’. Cf. Yoma 82a, ‘Nothing stands in the way of saving life’.
ONLY JEWS GIVE CHARITY FOR ITS OWN SAKE, GENTILES GIVE CHARITY TO BOAST, BE HAUGHTY AND DOMINATE, THE CHARITY OF GENTILES IS SIN
Rabban Johanan b. Zakkai said to his disciples: My sons, what is the meaning of the verse, Righteousness exalteth a nation, but the kindness of the peoples is sin? R. Eliezer answered and said: ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation:’ this refers to Israel of whom it is written, Who is like thy people Israel one nation in the earth? But ‘the kindness of the peoples is sin’: all the charity and kindness done by the heathen is counted to them as sin, because they only do it to magnify themselves, as it says, That they may offer sacrifices of sweet savour unto the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the king and of his sons. But is not an act of this kind charity in the full sense of the word, seeing that it has been taught: ‘If a man says, — I give this sela for charity in order that my sons may live and that I may be found worthy of the future world, he may all the same be a righteous man in the full sense of the word’? — There is no contradiction; in the one case we speak of an Israelite, in the other of a heathen.
R. Joshuah answered and said: ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation,’ this refers to Israel of whom it is written, Who is like thy people Israel, one nation on the earth? ‘The kindness of peoples is sin’: all the charity and kindness that the heathen do is counted sin to them, because they only do it in order that their dominion may be prolonged, as it says, Wherefore O king, let my counsel be acceptable to thee, and break off thy sins by righteousness, and thy iniquities by showing mercy to the poor, if there may be a lengthening of thy tranquility. Rabban Gamaliel answered Saying: ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation’: this refers to Israel of whom it is written, Who is like thy people Israel etc. ‘And the kindness of the peoples is sin:’ all the charity and kindness that the heathen do is counted as sin to them, because they only do it to display haughtiness, and whoever displays haughtiness is cast into Gehinnom, as it says, The proud and haughty man, scorner is his name, he worketh in the wrath ['ebrah] of pride,16 and ‘wrath’ connotes Gehinnom, as it is written, A day of wrath is that day. Said Rabban Gamaliel: We have still to hear the opinion of the Modiite. R. Eliezer the Modiite says: ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation’: this refers to Israel of whom it is written, Who is like thy people Israel, one nation in the earth. ‘The kindness of the peoples is sin’: all the charity and kindness of the heathen is counted to them as sin, since they do it only to reproach us, as it says, The Lord hath brought it and done according as he spake, because ye have sinned against the Lord and have not obeyed his voice, therefore this thing is come upon you. R. Nehuniah b. ha-Kanah answered saying: ‘Righteousness exalteth a nation, and there is kindness for Israel and a sin-offering for the peoples.’ Said R. Johanan b. Zakkai to his disciples: ‘The answer of R. Nehuniah b. ha-Kanah is superior to my answer and to yours, because he assigns charity and kindness to Israel and sin to the heathen.’ This seems to show that he also gave an answer; what was it? — As it has been taught: R. Johanan b. Zakkai said to them: Just as the sin-offering makes atonement for Israel, so charity makes atonement for the heathen. – 1962 Soncino Babylonian Talmud, Baba Bathra 10b
11. Prov. XIV, 34.
12. II Sam. VII, 23.
13. Ezra VI, 10. Artaxerxes wrote thus to the Governor of Jerusalem when he ordered him to give Ezra all that he required.
14. Because the Israelite, whatever he may say, really gives the charity for its own sake.
15. Dan, IV, 27.
16. Prov. XXI, 24.
17. Zeph. I, 15.
18. From Modim, near Jerusalem, the ancient home of the Maccabean family.
19. Jer. XL, 3. Spoken by Nebuzaradan to Jeremiah.
20. And we translate the verse: Righteousness exalteth a nation (Israel), and the kindness of peoples is a sin — offering for them.